Save? Is old news! In a new book says Nobel laureate Paul Krugman, why states urgently need to spend more money. Karen Millen Dress
Occupy the mastermind David Graeber goes even further: loans are only a means to enslave people - and the I MF collect gangster squad.
With strangers, one should not talk about religion or politics - it teaches the American small talk etiquette. David Graeber had kept it, he would probably never have come into the temptation of the book "debt. The first 5000 years of" post.
But Graeber is an anarchist and Occupy mastermind, he's not much on labels. And so he tells the young, educated and well-dressed woman who is introduced to him at a garden party, violence, malnutrition and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The IMF was "in high finance, the equivalent of the guys who come and break a man's legs" if you do not pay back his debts, says Graeber. Therefore, the malnutrition in developing countries: Karen Millen The IMF would force the governments to remove subsidies on basic foodstuffs, instead, to repay the debt with interest and compound interest to wealthy industrialized nations.
"Debts must be paid back yet!" The woman interrupted Graeber's remarks. He is overwhelmed by so much ignorance. Later, a drunken bankers Graeber spans from the interlocutor, but as the evening went for it anyway already.
The statement "you have to pay back debt," said Graeber in his book, Karen Millen Dresses confusing economics with morality. Fasting and in economic terms were lenders run the risk of never seeing their money again something - it was part of their business model and one of the reasons why they charge interest. To require debt to be paid in any case, this mix of morality and economics rejects Graeber from strictly - just because he longs for a more moral economy.
Not even as a dishwasher in demand
To explain his position, obtained from David Graeber far. In his book, he writes with more abstract guilt, the man committed all cultures morally, but it can be repaid never: to the parents (who gave us life), the ancestors (who gave us language and culture),Karen Millen Dress or the cosmos ( without whom we would not).
He also writes about concrete and quantifiable liabilities arising about the trade and led to his invention of the theory to Münzgelds. Coins are anonymous notes, for the guaranteeing of the State. And, although their value - at least since decoupling the dollar from gold in 1971 - the permanent negotiation process between creditors and debtors, rich and poor is subject. Economic debt was always a means of ruling, shows Graeber. Those who speak of justice, must speak of debt.
The German translation of his book will appear in time to a time when Europe seems to savings and debt policy at serious risk. Although "debt. The first 5000 years" therefore learns more attention than similar cultural histories, are more interested in David Graeber for ancient Mesopotamia as the state of the European Union, rather than prison, slave markets and debt for fiscal consolidation and bailouts.
A more pragmatic crisis book wrote Nobel laureate economist Paul Krugman: "Forget the crisis, why we now have to spend money." In February, Krugman does not even finished the book, three months later it is already available in German: The Economist in a hurry, the situation will heat up. "Each month, the longer the crisis lasts, further damaging our society," he writes. "If there are measures that allow the economic recovery can be accelerated dramatically - and there they are -., Then we should take this"
Krugman is worried mainly about the army of the unemployed in the United States, more than 13 million, there are currently. That their situation is dramatically opens up, quickly, many have lost their jobs with health insurance, unemployment benefits is limited. And the low-wage sector would offer no way out, so Krugman: McDonald's did in April last year about 50,000 new posts were written, would have on the approximately one million people applied. Who would believe to be a millionaire someday, if he is not even needed as a dishwasher?
Free of ideology
In order to avert major damage of destroyed lives, asks Krugman, build again those welfare state that has arisen in the U.S. after the Great Depression of the thirties and was later dismantled piece by piece. That the state put in a similar crisis today as it was 80 years, is more of a reason to hope than to despair, writes Krugman. You know the way out after all: "Public investment ended the Great Depression of the thirties, and something similar is also urgently needed today."
This sentence sounds when Krugman although of course, but is vehemently contested by conservative Americans. This feeds the fear Krugman's book would provoke in his readers based on their political beliefs but vigorously nodding and shaking his head - but do not allow resolution of the crisis.
The radicals David Graeber has, paradoxically, more conciliatory than retro-reformer Paul Krugman. In his second, also these days in German published book "Inside Occupy" trying Graeber to explain though, why the United States are neither democratic, nor ever were democratic - at least not succeeded before the Occupy-Wall Street-movement, "a pseudo-democratic power system to provide a picture of real democracy against ". The style of his "debt"-the book is far less polemical. Away from individual provocations (such that all forms of altruistic behavior generally as "communism" to describe) its Herführungen are refreshingly far from the political agenda, and pleasantly free of ideology.
This is why "debt" the safest investment in the new crisis books, even if historians and philosophers are likely to have their problems with the book. Graeber writes essay for more than academic: He always jumps back half a millennium ago and back, just as one could expect of unbroken continuity over such long periods. He ignored his criticism of the teachings of Adam Smith's moral philosophical texts. And he remains vague about when he first points out convincingly that slavery means social death - and shortly thereafter paid work compared with slavery.
But it would be presumptuous to expect, would a 5000-year history to little more than 400 pages of text more than "debt" can: introduce the topic and stimulate new ideas in a seemingly hopeless situation. Finally, it is indeed here only once a matter of finding the next garden party on the right arguments. And can never again bail out of drunken bankers.